What is the sandbox anyways?
There are two types of custom extensions:
- Sandboxed extensions
- Unsandboxed extensions
This difference has a significant impact on your extensions. So far we've primarily focused on creating sandboxed extensions, but what does that mean?
The sandbox is actually an
<iframe>. Sandboxed extensions are run in a sandboxed cross-origin iframe that can't directly access the main page with the editor and the VM; it's stuck in its own isolated world.
For this reason, sandboxed extensions:
- Can not access Scratch internals
- Can not access any part of the project that was not passed in as an argument, including variables
- Can not directly interact with sprites at all
They can, however:
- Access most public APIs, as long as CORS allows it
It is worthwhile to note that in other Scratch mods, the extension sandbox may be a
Worker instead of an
<iframe>. We use an
<iframe> instead as it is more secure (cross origin vs. same origin) and allows access to more Web APIs.
And perhaps the biggest limitation of all is that every time a block runs, the script will pause for at least 1 frame, regardless of how simple the script is. It doesn't matter whether "run without screen refresh" or turbo mode is enabled. It will always wait.
This is a very significant limitation and it makes custom extensions almost useless, which is why we introduced support for...
As the name implies, unsandboxed extensions do not run in an iframe. They run in the same context as Scratch itself as
This means that unsandboxed extensions:
- CAN access Scratch internals
- CAN access parts of the project that were not passed in as an argument, such as variables
- CAN directly interact with any sprite
And perhaps most importantly, running a block from an unsandboxed extension is actually instantaneous -- no forced 1 frame delay.
- Create a sandboxed extension (same as we've been building so far) with a COMMAND block that does nothing. Create a new empty project and create a repeat (10) loop that runs this block 4 times. Observe that, even though the blocks don't do anything, it takes more than a second for the loop to complete.
- In the repeat loop, replace the block from the extension with a "set my variable to 0" block instead. Observe that the loop completes instantly. This is how blocks from unsandboxed extensions will behave.
- Inside a custom extension, use console.log to output the value of
window.origin. Compare this to running
window.originin your browser's developer console on turbowarp.org.
Unsandboxed extensions are clearly better, so let's write one.